• Start Date: 2020-01-10
  • Relevant Team(s): Ember.js
  • RFC PR: https://github.com/emberjs/rfcs/pull/580
  • Tracking: (leave this empty)

Destroyables

Summary

Adds an API for registering destroyables and destructors with Ember's built in destruction hierarchy.

class MyComponent extends Component {
  constructor() {
    let timeoutId = setTimeout(() => console.log('hello'), 1000);

    registerDestructor(this, () => clearTimeout(timeoutId));
  }
}

The API will also enable users to create and manage their own destroyables, and associate them with a parent destroyable.

class TimeoutManager {
  constructor(parent, fn, timeout = 1000) {
    let timeoutId = setTimeout(fn, timeout);

    associateDestroyableChild(parent, this);
    registerDestructor(this, () => clearTimeout(timeoutId));
  }
}

class MyComponent extends Component {
  manager = new TimeoutManager(this, () => console.log('hello'));
}

Motivation

Ember manages the lifecycles and lifetimes of many built in constructs, such as components, and does so in a hierarchical way - when a parent component is destroyed, all of its children are destroyed as well. This is a well established software pattern that is useful for many applications, and there are a variety of libraries, such as ember-lifeline and ember-concurrency, that would benefit from having a way to extend this hierarchy, adding their own "children" that are cleaned up whenever their parents are removed.

Historically, Ember has exposed this cleanup lifecycle via hooks, such as the willDestroy hook on components. However, methods like these have a number of downsides:

  1. Since they are named, they can have collisions with other properties. This is historically what led to the actions hash on classic components, in order to avoid collisions between actions named destroy and the destroy lifecyle hook.

  2. On a related note, relying on property names means that all framework classes must implement the willDestroy function (or another name), making it very difficult to change APIs in the future.

  3. Methods are difficult for libraries to instrument. For instance, ember-concurrency currently replaces the willDestroy method on any class with a task, with logic that looks similar to:

    let PATCHED = new WeakSet();
    
    function patchWillDestroy(obj) {
      if (PATCHED.has(obj)) return;
    
      let oldWillDestroy = obj.willDestroy;
    
      obj.willDestroy = function () {
        if (oldWillDestroy) oldWillDestroy.call(this);
    
        teardownTasks(this);
      };
    
      PATCHED.add(obj);
    }
    

    This logic becomes especially convoluted if multiple libraries are attempting to patch willDestroy in this way.

  4. Finally, since this isn't a standard, it's difficult to add layers of new destroyable values that can interoperate with one another. For instance, there is no way for ember-concurrency to know how to destroy tasks on non-framework classes that users may have added themselves.

This RFC proposes a streamlined API that disconnects the exact implementation from any interface, allows for multiple destructors per-destroyable, and maximizes interoperability in general.

Detailed design

The API consists of 6 main functions, imported from @ember/destroyable:

declare function associateDestroyableChild<T extends object>(parent: object, child: T): T;

declare function registerDestructor<T extends object>(
  destroyable: T,
  destructor: (destroyable: T) => void
): (destroyable: T) => void;

declare function unregisterDestructor<T extends object>(
  destroyable: T,
  destructor: (destroyable: T) => void
): void;

declare function destroy(destroyable: object): void;
declare function isDestroying(destroyable: object): boolean;
declare function isDestroyed(destroyable: object): boolean;

In addition, there is a debug-only mode function used for testing:

declare function assertDestroyablesDestroyed(): void;

For the remainder of this RFC, the terms "destroyable" and "destroyable object" will be used to mean any object which is a valid WeakMap key (e.g. typeof obj === 'object' || typeof obj === 'function'). Any JS object that fulfills this property can be used with this system.

associateDestroyableChild

This function is used to associate a destroyable object with a parent. When the parent is destroyed, all registered children will also be destroyed.

class CustomSelect extends Component {
  constructor() {
    // obj is now a child of the component. When the component is destroyed,
    // obj will also be destroyed, and have all of its destructors triggered.
    this.obj = associateDestroyableChild(this, {});
  }
}

Returns the associated child for convenience.

  • Attempting to associate a parent or child that has already been destroyed or is being destroyed should throw an error.
Multiple Inheritance

Attempting to associate a child to multiple parents should currently throw an error. This could be changed in the future, but for the time being multiple inheritance of destructors is tricky and not scoped in. Instead, users can add destructors to accomplish this goal:

let parent1 = {},
  parent2 = {},
  child = {};

registerDestructor(parent1, () => destroy(child));
registerDestructor(parent2, () => destroy(child));

The exact timing semantics here will be a bit different, but for most use cases this should be fine. If we find that it would be useful to have multiple inheritance baked in in the future, it can be added in a followup RFC.

registerDestructor

Receives a destroyable object and a destructor function, and associates the function with it. When the destroyable is destroyed with destroy, or when its parent is destroyed, the destructor function will be called.

import { registerDestructor } from '@ember/destroyable';

class Modal extends Component {
  @service resize;

  constructor() {
    this.resize.register(this, this.layout);

    registerDestructor(this, () => this.resize.unregister(this));
  }
}

Multiple destructors can be associated with a given destroyable, and they can be associated over time, allowing libraries like ember-lifeline to dynamically add destructors as needed. registerDestructor also returns the associated destructor function, for convenience.

The destructor function is passed a single argument, which is the destroyable itself. This allows the function to be reused multiple times for many destroyables, rather than creating a closure function per destroyable.

import { registerDestructor } from '@ember/destroyable';

function unregisterResize(instance) {
  instance.resize.unregister(instance);
}

class Modal extends Component {
  @service resize;

  constructor() {
    this.resize.register(this, this.layout);

    registerDestructor(this, unregisterResize);
  }
}
  • Registering a destructor on a destroyed object or object that is being destroyed should throw an error.
  • Attempting to register the same destructor multiple times should throw an error.

unregisterDestructor

Receives a destroyable and a destructor function, and de-associates the destructor from the destroyable.

import { unregisterDestructor } from '@ember/destroyable';

class Modal extends Component {
  @service modals;

  constructor() {
    this.modals.add(this);

    this.modalDestructor = registerDestructor(this, () => this.modals.remove(this));
  }

  @action pinModal() {
    unregisterDestructor(this, this.modalDestructor);
  }
}
  • Calling unregisterDestructor on a destroyed object should throw an error.
  • Calling unregisterDestructor with a destructor that is not associated with the object should throw an error.

destroy

destroy initiates the destruction of a destroyable object. It runs all associated destructors, and then destroys all children recursively.

let obj = {};

registerDestructor(obj, () => console.log('destroyed!'));

destroy(obj); // this will schedule the destructor to be called

// ...some time later, during scheduled destruction

// destroyed!

Destruction via destroy() follows these steps:

  1. Mark the destroyable such that isDestroying(destroyable) returns true
  2. Schedule calling the destroyable's destructors
  3. Call destroy() on each of the destroyable's associated children
  4. Schedule setting destroyable such that isDestroyed(destroyable) returns true

This algorithm results in the entire tree of destroyables being first marked as destroying, then having all of their destructors called, and finally all being marked as isDestroyed. There won't be any in between states where some items are marked as isDestroying while destroying, while others are not.

Calling destroy multiple times on the same destroyable is safe. It will not throw an error, and will not take any further action.

Calling destroy with a destroyable that has no destructors or associated children will not throw an error, and will do nothing.

isDestroying

Receives a destroyable, and returns true if the destroyable has begun destroying. Otherwise returns false.

let obj = {};
isDestroying(obj); // false
destroy(obj);
isDestroying(obj); // true
// ...sometime later, after scheduled destruction
isDestroyed(obj); // true
isDestroying(obj); // true

isDestroyed

Receives a destroyable, and returns true if the destroyable has finished destroying. Otherwise returns false.

let obj = {};

isDestroyed(obj); // false
destroy(obj);

// ...sometime later, after scheduled destruction

isDestroyed(obj); // true

assertDestroyablesDestroyed

This function asserts that all objects which have associated destructors or associated children have been destroyed at the time it is called. It is meant to be a low level hook that testing frameworks like ember-qunit and ember-mocha can use to hook into and validate that all destroyables have in fact been destroyed.

Built In Destroyables

The root destroyable of an Ember application will be the instance of the owner. All framework managed classes are destroyables, including:

  • Components
  • Services
  • Routes
  • Controllers
  • Helpers
  • Modifiers

Any future classes that are added and have a container managed lifecycle should also be marked as destroyables.

How we teach this

Destroyables are not a very commonly used primitive, but they are fairly core to Ember applications. Most destruction lifecycle hooks will be rationalized as destroyables under the hood, and and it is key to how the application manages lifecycles. As such, destroyables should be covered in an In-Depth Guide in the Core Concepts section of the guides.

Guide Outline

The guide should start by discussing lifecycle, in particular focusing on in the existing lifecycle hooks that users will already know about, such as willDestroy on components. It should cover how at a high level, every framework concept exists in a lifecycle tree, where children are tied to the lifecyles of their parents. When something in the tree is destroyed, like a component so are all of its children.

The destroyable APIs can then be brought in to discuss how one might add to the tree, if they have concepts whose lifecycles would logically belong to it. This should be done primarily through examples. Some ideas for possible examples include:

  1. A simple remote data fetcher. The request needs to be cancelled if the parent is destroyed, which is a perfect use case for a destroyable.
  2. A task manager that manages a variety of long lived tasks.
  3. Possibly another example where a completely independent tree is made, for some sort of library that would be otherwise external to Ember.

The rest of the guide could show in detail how the user would use the APIs to accomplish this goal, and how it would be better and more scalable than doing it with lifecycle hooks.

There should also be a section on when to use the low-level destroyable APIs, vs the standard lifecycle hooks.

API Docs

The descriptions of the APIs above in the RFC are sufficient detail for the bulk of API documentation, with some light editing.

Drawbacks

  • Adds another destruction API which may conflict with the existing destruction hooks. Since this is a low-level API, it shouldn't be too problematic - most users will be guided toward using the standard lifecycle hooks, and this API will exist for libraries like ember-concurrency and ember-lifeline.

Alternatives

  • Continue using existing lifecycle hooks for public API, and don't provide an independent API.